Hematometra, also known as hemometra or post abortion syndrome, is a medical term which describes an accumulation of blood clots in the uterus and affects the fertility of women. It can be caused by a series of medical problems or diseases, and the treatment consists in detecting the source of blood. What Is Hematometrocolpos? Hematometrocolpos defines as blood accumulation within the uterus and vagina. If noticed in the newborn period, it often happens because of congenital obstruction. If seen later, the most often cause is imperforate hymen along with transverse vaginal septum.
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Pyometra and pyocolpos Etiology The most common etiology is cervical or vaginal obstruction, resulting in a collection of blood, pus, or fluid that distends the uterus or vagina. Many years ago, fluid in the endometrial cavity was considered a sonographic sign of cancer. More recently, Dr. Steven Goldstein showed that it is not the intracavitary fluid that conveys the risk of cancer, rather the appearance of the wall around the fluid.
If the endometrium surrounding the fluid is smooth and thin, endometrial cancer is unlikely, whereas an irregular wall or mass protruding into the fluid indicates the presence of a tumor. Benign causes of hematometra include an intracavitary fibroid or polyp in the cervix or lower uterine segment, and adhesions such as those encountered after an incomplete endometrial ablation. If the ablation seals the lower uterine segment but leaves intact endometrium at the fundus, cyclical hematometra with bilateral hematosalpinges may result.
This may pose a diagnostic dilemma if the uterine anomaly is not known, because these patients will present with a painful cystic mass in the pelvis often mistaken for a degenerating fibroid or adnexal mass. If there is a backup of blood or fluid in the vagina, this may extend into the uterine cavity and result in an associated hematometra. Patients with congenital anomalies of the vagina often have associated anomalies of the uterus; however, patients with vaginal obstruction may not become symptomatic until menarche.
The fluid often contains low-level echoes much like the texture of an endometrioma, indicating the presence of unclotted blood. Did the patient become symptomatic at menarche or is she asymptomatic? Learn more here You may also need.
Causes[ edit ] There can be four possible causes of hematocolpos  Imperforate hymen : An imperforate hymen is a medical condition where the girls are born with a hymen which covers the whole opening of the vagina. An imperforate hymen may be diagnosed at any age. However, when a girl hits puberty, this type of hymen blocks the blood from flowing out and the bloods pools in the vagina. As the blood backs up in the vagina, it causes: -Mass or fullness in the lower abdomen -Stomach ache -Back pain -Problems in urinating and bowel movements,  Cervical atresia : Cervical Atresia is a relatively rare Mullerian duct anomaly of the female reproductive tract.
Hematometra and Hematocolpos