In he wrote a letter to his student Benedetto Castelli — in Pisa about the problem of squaring the Copernican theory with certain biblical passages. Several Dominican fathers in Florence lodged complaints against Galileo in Rome, and Galileo went to Rome to defend the Copernican cause and his good name. In his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo discussed the problem of interpreting biblical passages with regard to scientific discoveries but, except for one example, did not actually interpret the Bible. That task had been reserved for approved theologians in the wake of the Council of Trent —63 and the beginning of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
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Grassi argued from the apparent absence of observable parallax that comets move beyond the Moon. Galileo mistakenly believed that comets are an optical illusion. Mathematics and philosophy in The Assayer[ edit ] In Galileo may have been silenced on Copernicanism. The election of Barberini seemed to assure Galileo of support at the highest level in the Church. A visit to Rome confirmed this.
The Assayer is a milestone in the history of science: here Galileo describes the scientific method , which was quite a revolution at the time. The title page of The Assayer shows the crest of the Barberini family , featuring three busy bees. The book was dedicated to the new pope. This book was edited and published by members of the Lynx.
Furthermore, he insisted that natural philosophy i. According to the title page, he was the philosopher i. Natural philosophy physics spans the gamut from processes of generation and growth represented by a plant to the physical structure of the universe, represented by the cosmic cross-section.
Mathematics, on the other hand, is symbolized by telescopes, and an astrolabe. Only through mathematics can one achieve lasting truth in physics. Those who neglect mathematics wander endlessly in a dark labyrinth. From the book:  Philosophy [i.
It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth.
Galileo used a sarcastic and witty tone throughout the essay.
Galileo became an accomplished lutenist himself and would have learned early from his father a scepticism for established authority,  the value of well-measured or quantified experimentation, an appreciation for a periodic or musical measure of time or rhythm, as well as the results expected from a combination of mathematics and experiment. Michelangelo would also occasionally have to borrow funds from Galileo to support his musical endeavours and excursions. When Galileo Galilei was eight, his family moved to Florence , but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years. At the time, surnames were optional in Italy, and his given name had the same origin as his sometimes-family name, Galilei. Both his given and family name ultimately derive from an ancestor, Galileo Bonaiuti , an important physician, professor, and politician in Florence in the 15th century; his descendants had come to refer to themselves as Galilei in his honor in the late 14th century.
His choice of residence was based, in part, on its proximity to a Franciscan convent, where two of his daughters had recently entered as nuns. Their illegitimate birth deprived them of favorable marriage prospects, and so their acceptance by the convent provided a security they could not otherwise have hoped for. Galileo was very close to his two daughters, particularly the eldest, Virginia, now known as Sister Mary Celeste, who would become a great support to him in his old age. But his inability to explore his true interests wore on him, and for a time Galileo seems to have sunk into a deep depression, worsened by bouts of illness and hypochondria.