Shelves: study The demonstrative pronouns of English are this plural these , and that plural those , as in these are good, I like that. Note that all four words can also be used as determiners followed by a noun , as in those cars. The interrogative pronouns are who, what, and which all of them can take the suffix -ever for emphasis. The pronoun who refers to a person or people; it has an oblique form whom though in The demonstrative pronouns of English are this plural these , and that plural those , as in these are good, I like that. The pronoun who refers to a person or people; it has an oblique form whom though in informal contexts this is usually replaced by who , and a possessive form pronoun or determiner whose. The pronoun what refers to things or abstracts.

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How terrible! In fact, as you see in these examples, it may look like a question or a command. There are only three things you can say about it: 1. It is usually short. It is always dramatic or emotional. It takes an exclamation point. Finding the Subject and Predicate Interrogative and imperative sentences introduce some interesting problems in finding subject and predicate.

Interrogative sentences are often in transposed order. To find the subject and predicate of such a sentence you must rephrase it as a statement the answer expected : Was that man at the game? The subject is that man. Who took my pencil? This was in normal order. The subject is who. Where is the best road from here to the coast? The subject is the best road from here to the coast.

How many times must we do this? The subject is we. Imperative sentences also have a slight peculiarity. It is called you understood. Practice in Identifying Kinds of Sentences Label the following sentences D for declarative, Int for interrogative, or Imp for imperative. Example: Please leave your wraps at the door. Imp Answers on page 1. It is very important to remember this date. Remember this date. Why did you take the book?

He asked me about the book. In a situation of this kind you should take extra precautions. Take extra precautions. Why has there been so much controversy about the identity of the criminal? Who will be the first man on the moon? He wants to know why. More Practice in Recognizing Subjects and Predicates Draw a single line under any word that belongs with the subject, a double line under any word that belongs with the predicate.

If the subject is you understood, write the word in. Example: Which of the pencils has soft lead: Answers on page 1. Take cover. Only one of his many former followers remained loyal. Which road will take me to the coast? After Labor Day the rates are lowered considerably.

Where does your friend Stanley keep his car? You will need a great many more tools for such a job. Arrange the cards in alphabetical order. When does the last train for Baldwin leave today? Only then did we realize the seriousness of our predicament. The complete subject is The upper branches of the tree; but the main word is branches. This is called the simple subject. The complete predicate is tossed violently in the high wind; but the main word is tossed. This is called the verb, or simple predicate.

Reduced to its essentials the sentence becomes: branches tossed You might call this the framework of the sentence. Similarly, in every sentence, the main parts of the complete subject and predicate are the simple subject and the verb. From here on, when this book refers to subject and verb, the word subject means simple subject. In order to analyze any sentence grammatically, you must be able to pick out the verb and the subject.

As a rule it is easier to find the verb first, since that is the operative word, the word that makes the statement or tells what happened. Then, by asking yourself who? Examples: One of our planes crash-landed safely in a ravine.

What happened? Something crash-landed. What crash-landed? The subject is one. In the doorway stood a tall gentleman with a top hat. Who stood? The subject is gentleman. The transposed order is no problem. Annabelle will be eighteen in September.

Somebody will be. Who will be? The subject is Annabelle. The Expletive There Using the same method you can work out the structure of sentences beginning with there: There is a fire in the fireplace. The verb is is—a very common little verb. What is? The answer is fire. A fire is in the fireplace. Sentences of this construction are very common in English.

There were pictures on all the walls. Verb: were. What were? There will be a short intermission. Verb: will be. What will be? There is still time for one more hand. Verb: is. Just remember that there is not the subject. Verb Phrases A verb has many forms and may consist of several words—up to four.

Note the following: Martha broke her doll. Martha is breaking her doll. Martha has broken her doll. The doll will break. The doll has been broken. The doll would have been broken. You can probably think of other possibilities. A verb consisting of more than one word is called a verb phrase. In the sentences above, the words which have been added to break, or breaking, or broken, to vary the meaning or the tense, are called auxiliaries helpers.

They are all "verb words"; that is, they can all be used as verbs: She is.


Essential English Grammar






Essential English grammar


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