The Stages of Economic Growth published in and popularized the views of Baran. Hoselitz has used the Parsonian modernization pattern variables to explain the process of development in any country. Frank is convinced that neither developed nor undeveloped societies reveal the characteristics suggested by Hoselitz or, for that matter, by Parsons. Frank also rejects the theory of diffusion, which suggests that the less developed societies cannot be developed because they are not able to be influenced by the changes in the developed world due to obstacles to development.
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The arrival of the Nazis to power forced his family to leave the country, establishing his residence in Switzerland. Already during the Second World War they moved to the United States, where he studied in high school. When choosing university subjects, the young man opted for economics and entered the University of Chicago. The doctorate was achieved in , presenting a thesis on agriculture in the Soviet Union. At that time, the University of Chicago was one of the most important centers in the field of economic sciences.
In this the emergence of a group of economists that were going to be very important in the expansion of neoliberalism around the world was brewing. Frank, of neo-Marxist ideas totally opposed to this group, recognized that the debates that took place there reaffirmed their beliefs. After finishing his studies, he made contact with the Latin American reality. He traveled and lived in several countries, such as Brazil, Mexico and Chile. The author was caught by the socio-economic and political reality and became involved in the leftist movements.
He settled there in and began to frequent the circles of academics in the country. His wife was of that nationality and that contributed to his incorporation into Chilean intellectual life. Frank brought to the leftist movements the neo-Marxist principles that some Americans were propagating.
In addition, he warned about the neoliberal thinking developed in Chicago by thinkers like Friedman. Travel and death Frank and his wife had to leave Chile because of the coup led by Pinochet. One of the aspects that worsened him was the bad treatment received from the US government. Frank had decided to leave the nationality of that country and return to the German and that was very bad in his former homeland.
The author traveled all over the world, from Canada to the Netherlands, but he never stopped being considered part Latin American. The presence in almost all the continent of military dictatorships was a great dislike for him.
Another blow took him to the death of his wife, affliction that would not leave until his own death. After his widowhood he was residing in Canada and, under the Clinton administration, he was allowed to work in the United States.
His last days were spent in Luxembourg, where he died on April 23, victim of a cancer he was fighting for 12 years. It was in Santiago de Chile where the debate opened by this theory gained more strength. To make it more understandable, its authors used the metaphor of the center and the periphery. Thus, the periphery undeveloped has an assigned role as a supplier of raw material; while profits and industrialization remain at the center. From the s, authors such as Marini or Frank himself developed this theory much more deeply.
Vision of Gunder Frank The point of view of Gunder Frank on the theory of dependence can be seen clearly when reading his own words: "Underdevelopment is not a consequence of the survival of archaic institutions, of the lack of capital in regions that have stayed away from the torrent of world history; on the contrary, underdevelopment has been and is still generated by the same historical process that also generates the economic development of capitalism itself".
According to his writings, world trade has mechanisms that impede the improvement of peripheral countries, keeping them in a poverty that is convenient for them. Some of these mechanisms are: - The global market only allows the periphery to act as exporters of raw materials or as consumers of already processed products. It leaves no option for them to be produced in their own countries.
Contributions to the economy The ideas of Gunder Frank and his supporters were not left alone in theory. Some Latin American countries began to implement some maneuvers to avoid stagnation in underdevelopment. Among these movements, he highlighted trade protectionism, with the imposition of tariffs and controls on foreign products.
In the same way, an attempt was made to create a structure that would allow manufacturing the products that were previously imported. Another of the policies developed was the monetary policy. The coins were overvalued, to be able to buy cheaper. Although this worked for a while, especially in the 70s, in the end the pressure of the central countries using the external debt that peripherals had always had, forced to modify the strategy. It is almost a historical-economic work in which, from a Marxist point of view, makes a review of social and political relations during history.
The author talks about the existence of what he calls the world-system. According to Frank, at first this world system had China as its center, but the discovery of America and its riches displaced it towards Europe. At present, he envisaged a return of that world center to Asia. Other contributions Another idea that the author developed in his works was his vision that America was installed in capitalism since the sixteenth century.
He also affirmed that there is a lumpen bourgeoisie in the whole continent, with a very vulnerable and vulnerable development. Finally, he conducted a comprehensive study on the effects of external debt in developing countries. Retrieved from herramienta. Retrieved from abc. Retrieved from elpais. Andre Gunder Frank. Retrieved from independent. Dependency Theory. Retrieved from revisesociology. U, Igwemma, A. Retrieved from iiste.
Retrieved from tandfonline. SimonDavid F. A methodological analysis of dependency theory: Explanation in Andre Gunder Frank. Recovered from sciencedirect.
Andre Gunder Frank
It is, broadly speaking, a Marxist theory of development. The World Capitalist System Frank argued that a world capitalist system emerged in the 16th century which progressively locked Latin America, Asia and Africa into an unequal and exploitative relationship with the more powerful European nations. The core nations are able to exploit the peripheral nations because of their superior economic and military power. According to Frank, developed nations actually fear the development of poorer countries because their development threatens the dominance and prosperity of the West. Colonialism, Slavery and Dependency Colonialism is a process through which a more powerful nation takes control of another territory, settles it, takes political control of that territory and exploits its resources for its own benefit.
André Gunder Frank: Biography, Theory of Dependence, Contributions to the Economy and Main Works
But, there are cases when it is being used only by few countries creating a difference of opinion among nations. This concept has been deeply analyzed by a famous sociologist — Andre Gunder Frank to understand the core importance through his theory of underdevelopment. Whereas, when resources are not used to their full socio-economic latent, with the result that development in a country is slower in most cases than it should be, especially compared with the capital and technologies in countries that surround it, it is then termed as underdevelopment. Begin from the origin: The happenings of this theory have not grown only from the modern period but have its origin from the mercantile period that goes back to the sixteenth to the late eighteenth centuries.
The arrival of the Nazis to power forced his family to leave the country, establishing his residence in Switzerland. Already during the Second World War they moved to the United States, where he studied in high school. When choosing university subjects, the young man opted for economics and entered the University of Chicago. The doctorate was achieved in , presenting a thesis on agriculture in the Soviet Union. At that time, the University of Chicago was one of the most important centers in the field of economic sciences. In this the emergence of a group of economists that were going to be very important in the expansion of neoliberalism around the world was brewing. Frank, of neo-Marxist ideas totally opposed to this group, recognized that the debates that took place there reaffirmed their beliefs.