Until , Tramways as well as light railways and undergrounds were dealt with under the same regulations as main-line railways, albeit when appropriate, having regard to road traffic laws as well. Similarly the word "Betrieb" has been interpreted throughout this document as either "Operation, Operational or Operating", except where clearly meaning the whole system or undertaking. In fact, although these are the most accurate and appropriate English words to describe the meaning of Betrieb, the latter covers a much wider range of activities than the words, Operations, Operational or Operating convey to an English reader with a railway, background. There is a particular problem in the case of the definition of the "Betriebsleiter". This person may be both the general manager of the "Betrieb", i. This individual requires specific qualifications including engineering qualifications and certification, which carry with them certain legal responsibilities, the exact equivalent of which do not necessarily exist in the UK.
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It gives a short background of the project before describing the selection of the underlying Norm Set and the Safety Approval Process. Finally our experiences using the ENX are given.
Keywords :? Gunni S. The new automatic, driver less Metro for Copenhagen is the first project of its kind in Denmark. After completion of all three construction phases the Metro will consist of 21 km double track of which 10 km is in tunnel. There will be ca. Out of these 23 stations 9 are underground stations and 14 are at grade or above ground stations. The operation will be driverless, 24 hours a day with a headway of sec.
Frederiksen, Pierfranco Romano April ]. The project was authorised by a law passed through Parliament in the summer of and based on this law the company?
DC has two tasks to fulfill: first to design, build and operate the Metro and second to plan, develop and sell the specific strip of land lying just south of the center of Copenhagen. Prior to start work with the requirements specifications the company performed an analysis of what kind of mass transit system should be selected: a Tramway, Light Rail or Metro, see [S?
The analysis showed that the driver less Metro provided the best solution in passenger throughput, safety, flexibility and the least impact on the historical medieval center of Copenhagen. The status pr. Nearly 8 km. Accordingly the work on the underground and above ground stations is ongoing. Phase 1 is scheduled to start revenue service in October , phase 2 in mid and finally phase 3 in early When we began our project there were no legal laws in Denmark specificly governing urban mass transit systems like the Metro.
The last tramway in Denmark in Copenhagen was dismantled in and at that time the tramways were treated using the normal traffic regulations with just a few paragraphs added. For further details please see [Gunni S. Frederiksen, J?
In all the previous years the national railway DSB had, according to the existing law, performed its own safety assessment and approval internally without using organisations outside DSB. DC therefore negotiated an approval process with the Ministry of Traffic, which included the use of an Independent Assessor plus the use of the above mentioned BOStrab regulations and a requirement to set up a Safety Organis ation on the supplier side, please see fig. To handle all operational safety issues and approvals a safety organisation was set up according to the contracts.
There are 3 organisations from the two contractors, which have to cooperate in the safety matters. They are all three referring to the Chief Safety Manager who also must be from the TS contractors organis ation. The responsibilities of the safety management are to:?
Another important organisation is the above mentioned Independent Assessor which in our case is T? V InterTraffic in Cologne T? V Rheinland. V InterTraffic has a separate contract with? DC for carrying out the safety assessment. For further details of how to carry out the assessment please see [Gunni S. Frederiksen, Ulrich Haspel November ]. DC, the suppliers and T? A graphical representation of the milestones and their interdependencies are shown in fig. V InterTraffic. The project flow through the various milestones defines the project life cycle in accordance with EN In the governing Safety Plan for the project the supplier describes the safety activities and the safety management structure.
The flow and the relationship between these safety cases are shown in fig. According to EN the safety case is a structured way to give evidence of Quality Management, evidence of Safety Management and evidence of Functional and Technical safety.
All three elements must be present in order to obtain the safety acceptance. The content in each of the safety cases is structured around the same Table of Content outlined below: 1. Introduction 2. Structure of the Document 3. System Description 4. Quality Management Report 5. Safety Management Report 6. Technical Safety Report 7. Related safety Cases 8. Conclusions Let us use the ATC system safety case as example.
The safety cases for ATC are structured in a hierarchy shown in fig. Drago, F. Zuccarelli October ]. The apportionment of SILs is done after performing the following four steps: 1.
Identify all safety related functions of the Metro by functional analysis. Assignment of each safety related function to safety systems. Identify where applicable external risk reduction facilities. This may be in a combination of system design, procedures and external facilities. Following the mentioned four steps there must of course be a test and verification that the Subsystems performing a safety functions are capable of fulfilling the allocated SIL.
The result of the apportionment of SILs for the Metro is given in tabel 1. Tabel 1. A consequence of this work was an analysis of operating requirements to the system through an investigation of ca.
For the mainline 21 normal operational, 49 fall back and 27 emergency scenarios were carried out. For the CMC area 27 normal operational, 31 fall back and 6 emergency scenarios were carried out. In order to fulfill the safety targets for the ATC system a demonstration of the failure rates pr. To understand how this is done a short description of the ATP platform is necessary. First the logical expressions in the application program are compiled straightforward and the result stored in a RAM-database A.
This is done to avoid failures due to hardware faults in the RAM memory. The two results are compared and if identical the result is executed i. By shifting to a bit CPU and upgrading the software the Assessor pointed out the necessity according to EN to obtain statistical based values for failure rates of the new Mikrolok-II system. This model is used to generate fault lists, covering both permanent faults faults that persist longer than one CPU instruction cycle and transient faults.
Amendola, L. Impagliazzo, P. Marmo, F. The experiments have been initiated and shall be completed during the summer During the work with the requirement specifications for the contract in and we had to rely on preliminary versions of the ENX norms. Development and acceptance of norms and standards is a lengthy business, I guess the years spent till now on the development of the ENX norms are around 10 years.
Concerning EN we used the June version in the contract, which was an unwieldy document, difficult to read and use. Eventually with the subsequent versions of EN that came available, supplemented by EN and EN also contractually required, a more clear and understandable framework became evident without changes to the content of the standards. However they may certainly be improved for future use.
By using the ENX norms we discovered in the project that it was necessary to make interpretation of the requirements in the practical implementation of the norms.
By a close cooperation between our safety assessor and our suppliers an agreement of the detailed activities to be performed was achieved. This is of course excellent for our project but seen in a broader perspective the risk is that a different assessor and a different national railway authority may end up with an interpretation of the ENX norms which is different from interpretations of other national railway authorities.
This is not in the interest of the European Union, which strives to facilitate safety approvals across national borders in order to make the European railways more competitive. When going into the details of the ENX norms you will see that the majority of the requirements are directed towards the documentation and the process rather than directed towards the system itself.
This is not wrong in itself, but for future use I feel that more clear requirements on the system might ease the assessment process.
Please see also the excellent study by Fenton et al [Norman E. Fenton, Martin Neil November ]. Based on the principle described in the Fenton study, the Danish Railway Inspectorate has performed a preliminary analysis of EN [Joensen January ] and found that for instance in sect.
If therefore the European railways shall survive in the future, i. Then hopefully the safety approval process can be performed more smoothly, less time consuming and less costly. For further on line information please access our homepages: Info on the Metro: www. Eugenio Dotta, Gunni S. Norman E. Barry W. Morten S? HW - vitalComp.
Category:Tram signals in Germany
Verordnung über den Bau und Betrieb der Straßenbahnen
BOStrab German Federal Regulations on the - Modern Streetcar